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Arte y Juegos Populares
Arte y Juegos Populares

Arte y Juegos Populares (2)

Jueves, 18 de Febrero de 2010 23:10

Los Juegos Populares a través del arte.

Escrito por Manoli
Califica este tema
(5 votos)

Nuestro agradecimiento a Julio Herrador Sánchez por su colaboración para la realización de este artículo.

"Si una imagen presente no hace pensar en una imagen ausente, si una imagen ocasional no determina una provisión de imágenes, no hay imaginación. Hay percepción, recuerdo de una percepción, memoria familiar, hábito de los colores y las formas" (Bachelard).

La mayoría de los Juegos Populares han sido representados a lo largo de la historia cultural de la humanidad en las diferentes manifestaciones artísticas: pinturas, dibujos, grabados, escultura, azulejos, sellos postales, etc... Incluso si analizácemos la fotografía, el cine, el teatro, las historietas cómicas, cuentos, textos literarios, anuncios publicitarios... podríamos observar cómo se hace en múltiples ocasiones referencia a conocidos Juegos Populares.

Las primeras muestras de ello las podemos encontrar en los grabados prehistóricos de las Cuevas de Altamira y Lascaux entre otras.

Del siglo XIII se conserva en el Museo Atger de Montpellier un manuscrito con ilustraciones que hacen referencia al juego de la "gallinita ciega".

En la Biblioteca Nacional de Francia existen unos grabados sobre los juegos practicados en el siglo XVII, durante el reinado de Luis XIV.

Ya en los siglos XVIII y XIX los juegos populares aparecen representados en las "Aleluyas", género literario popular en el que podemos encontrar por primera vez una sección estrictamente infantil con lectura e imágenes para niños. Generalmente el autor del texto y el dibujante de las aleluyas son desconocidos.
En la Sección de Bellas Artes de la Biblioteca Nacional de Madrid se conserva la colección de viñetas de Aleluyas "Juegos de la infancia" del siglo XIX.

La obra mas representativa es el óleo de Peter Brueguel el Viejo "Juego de niños" (1560), que se encuentra en el Kunsthistorisches Museum de Viena.

El mismo tema es tratado por múltiples pintores, entre los que cabe destacar:

De autor desconocido. "Jesús jugando al trompo" (1410). Kunsthistorisches Museum de Viena.

Jean Simeón Chardin. "El niño de la peonza" (1738). Museo del Louvre de París.

Bartolomé Esteban Murillo. "Juego de pelota" (1660). Dulwich Picture Gallery de Londres y "Niños jugando a los dados" (1675). Althe Pinakothek de Munich

José del Castillo. "Muchachos jugando a la peonza" (1700). Museo del Prado de Madrid.

Francisco de Goya. "Juego de niños. El paso" (1779) y "Juego de niños. El balancín" (1781). Museo de Bellas Artes San Pío V de Valencia.

y "La gallina ciega" (1789). Museo del Prado de Madrid.

Friedrich Eduard Meyerheim (1808-1879). "Versteckspiel im Wald".

M. Piccolo. "Niños jugando al trompo" (1890).

Joaquín Sorolla. "Saltando a la comba, La Granja" (1907). Museo Reina Sofía de Madrid.

Miguel Vilá. "Figura con peonza" (1973).

Antonio Berni. "Juanito jugando con su trompo" (1973).

José Huerto Wong. "El as del trompo" (1989).

Jugando al escondite.

Saltando a la comba.

Aunque posiblemente pase desapercibido, en los dibujos animados y cómics aparecen multitud de escenas de los "famosos personajes" jugando a los juegos de siempre. Seguramente hayamos visto a los sobrinos del Pato Donald saltar a la comba, a los Picapiedra jugando a gallinita ciega o a la soga-tira, a Heidi y diferentes personajes de Disney jugando a piola o a churro-mediamanga-mangotero, o a la familia Simpsom participar en una carrera de sacos y jugar a la rayuela....

En la cerámica y mas concretamente en la de Manises se representa habitualmente escenas de la vida popular, y no podía faltar hacer referencia a los juegos infantiles, el trompo, por ejemplo.

Los juegos Populares tambien son protagonistas de numerosas esculturas que decoran nuestras calles y plazas.

Tenemos una extensa muestra de ellas en Gran Canaria, donde podemos disfrutar las 24 horas del día, los 365 días del año de niñas y niños jugando en la calle, algo hoy tan difícil de encontrar: son el conjunto de esculturas "Homenaje a los Juegos Infantiles".
Niños jugando a piola. Diego Cruz.
Saltando a piola. Diego Cruz.                                                                                Al corro de las patatas. Lourdes Umerez.

Canicas. Lourdes Umerez.                                                                                   Carrera de sacos. Lourdes Umerez.

Niña en patines. Diego Cruz.                                                         Niña en bicicleta. Lourdes Umerez.

Niño en patinete. Diego Cruz.                                                        Lucha canaria. José Luis Marrero.

Niños en el columpio. Lourdes Umerez.

En Palencia podemos encontrarnos con "La niña de la comba", réplica de la obra de Ursicino Martínez que se encuentra en el Museo Ursi de Aguilar de Campoo (Palencia).

En el Parque Escultórico de Hinojosa de Jarque (Teruel), la escultura "Par de opuestos" representa el juego de la Soga-tira.

En Medellín (Colombia) son muy conocidas las esculturas de Justo Arosemena Lacayo "Niño elevando cometa" y "El niño del globo".

"La disputa" de Vicky Camacho, es una monumental escultura que representa a dos grupos de personas jugando a medir sus fuerzas. Está expuesta en El Trébol-Quito (Ecuador).

Un caso algo peculiar es lo ocurrido con el conjunto escultórico "Los juegos de antaño", de Hector Lombana, por el que el estado panameño en el año 2.000 llegó a pagar 250.000 dólares y llegó a ofrecer mas tarde una recompensa de 10.000 dolares por su recuperación, ya que "desaparecio" del lugar en el que estaban almacenadas tras retirarlas del centro de convenciones donde fueron expuestas para la celebración de la X Cumbre Iberoamericana dedicada a la infancia, las 42 estatuas (niñas, niños, juguetes y palomas) que llegan a pesar 35 toneladas

El sello de correos se comenzó a utilizar un 6 de Mayo de 1.840 en Inglaterra, y en esas fechas se comenzó con la costumbre de incluir en algunas cartas una frase con un consejo: "Conserve esta carta. El sello puede algún día ser una curiosidad interesante", comenzando así la historia de la filatelia y dándonos la oportunidad 170 años después de poder contemplar las imágenes que sobre juegos se han incluído en sellos de todo el mundo.

El escondite.

Saltar a la comba.

El trompo.            

Otros juegos.

Aunque parezca contradictorio, es en un thriller de terror protagonizado por Robert de Nilo, "El escondite", la película que hace referncia a dicho juego en su argumento: una joven que juega al escondite con un amigo imaginario...

Ultima modificacion el Domingo, 28 de Noviembre de 2010 18:48
Lunes, 11 de Enero de 2010 22:21


Escrito por Manoli
Califica este tema
(1 voto)

A continuación recogemos una relación de museos creados todos ellos, con el fin de investigar, conservar y dar a conocer los juegos y juguetes populares y/o tradicionales.


  • Museo de juegos tradicionales. Campo (Huesca)

  • Museo de juguetes y autómatas. Verdú (Lleida)


  • Museo del juguete. Figueras (Girona)

  • Museo del juguete. Denia (Alicante)

  • Museo Valenciano del juguete. Ibi (Alicante)

  • Museo de juguetes. Albarracín (Teruel)

  • Museo del niño. Albacete

  • Museo del juguete de hojalata. Candeleda (Ávila)

  •  Museo de Juegos populares y material deportivo de los siglos XIX y XX del INEF. Facultad de Ciencias de la Actividad Fñisica y el Deporte. Campus Ciudad Universitaria. Madrid



  • Museo de juguetes. Mechelén (Bélgica)


  • Museo del juguete de Estocolmo.

Estados Unidos:

  • Museo de muñecas y juguetes. Ohio

  • Museo de muñecas. Bellevue (Washington)

  • Museo del juguete "World´s largest toy museum". Branson, Mo (Missouri)


  • Museo del juego. Moirans (Montagne)

  • Museo de los autómatas. París


Gran Bretaña:

  • Museo de la infancia V&A. Londres


  •  Museo del juego y el juguete. Atenas



  • Casa museo del juego y el juguete mediterráneo. Agrigento (Sicilia)


  • Museo del juguete de Sintra (Portugal)


  • Museo de casas de muñecas. Basel

  • Museo suizo del juego. Castillo de la Tour de Peilz (Montreux) 

Ultima modificacion el Miércoles, 21 de Abril de 2010 18:52